Ions and Ionization - How it works
I ONS : P OSITIVE AND N EGATIVE
Atoms have no electric charge, because they maintain an equal number of protons (positively charged subatomic particles) and electrons, subatomic particles with a negative charge. In certain situations, however, the atom may lose or gain one or more electrons and acquire a net charge, becoming an ion.
Aluminum, for instance, has an atomic number of 13, which tells us that an aluminum atom will have 13 protons. Given the fact that every proton has a positive charge, and that most atoms tend to be neutral in charge, this means that there are usually 13 electrons, with a negative charge, present in an atom of aluminum. Yet like all metals, aluminum is capable of forming an ion by losing electrons—in this case, three.
Initially, the aluminum atom had a charge of +13 + (−13) = 0; in other words, its charge was neutral due to the equal numbers of protons and electrons. When it becomes an ion, it loses 3 electrons, leaving behind only 10. Now the charge is +13 + (−10) = +3. Thus the remaining aluminum ion is said to have a net positive charge of 3, represented as +3 or 3+. Chemists differ as to whether they represent the plus sign (or the minus sign, in the case of a negatively charged ion) before or after the number. Because both systems of notation are used, these will be applied interchangeably throughout the course of this essay.
When a neutral atom loses one or more electrons, the result is a positively charged ion, or cation (pronounced KAT-ie-un). Cations are usually represented by a superscript number and plus sign: Al +3 or Al 3+ , for instance, represents the aluminum cation described above. A cation is named after the element of which it is an ion: thus the ion we have described is either called the aluminum ion, or the aluminum cation.
When a neutrally charged atom gains electrons, acquiring a negative charge as a result, this type of ion is known as an anion (AN-ie-un). Anions can be represented symbolically in much the same way as cations: Cl − , for
The anion described here is never called a chlorine anion; rather, anions have a special nomenclature. If the anion represents, as was the case here, a single element, it is named by adding the suffix -ide to the name of the original element name: chloride. Such is the case, for instance, with a deadly mixture of carbon and nitrogen (CN − ), better known as cyanide.
Most often the-ide suffix is used, but in the case of most anions involving more than one element (polyatomic anions), as well as with oxyanions (anions containing oxygen), the rules can get fairly complicated. The general principles for naming anions are as follows:
- -ide: A single element with a negative charge. Note, however, that both hydroxide (OH − ) and cyanide (CN − ) also receive the-ide suffix, even though they involve more than one element.
- -ate: An oxyanion with the normal number of oxygen atoms, a number that depends on the nature of the compound. Examples include oxalate (C 2 O 4 −2 ) or chlorate (ClO 3 − ).
- -ite: An oxyanion containing 1 less oxygen than normal. Examples include chlorite (ClO 2 − ).
- hypo____ite: An oxyanion with 2 less oxygens than normal, but with the normal charge. An example is hypochlorite, or ClO − .
- per____ate: An oxyanion with 1 more oxygen than normal, but with the normal charge. Perchlorate, or ClO 4 − , is an example.
- thio-: An anion in which sulfur has replaced an oxygen. Thus, SO 4 −2 is called sulfate, whereas S 2 O 3 −2 is called thiosulfate.
E LEMENTS AND I ON C HARGES
As one might expect, given the many differences among families of elements on the periodic table, different elements form ions in different ways. Yet precisely because many of these can be grouped into families, primarily according to the column or group they occupy on the periodic table, it is possible to predict the ways in which they will form ions. The table below provides a few rules of thumb. (All group numbers refer to the North American version of the periodic table;
- Alkali metals (Group 1) form 1+ cations. For example, the ion of lithium (Li) is always Li + .
- Alkaline earth metals (Group 2) form 2+ cations. Thus, beryllium (Be), for instance, forms a Be 2+ ion.
- Most Group 3 metals (aluminum, gallium, and indium) form 3+ cations. The cation of aluminum, thus, is designated as Al 3+ .
- Group 6 nonmetals and metalloids (oxygen, sulfur, selenium, and tellurium) form 2− anions. Oxygen, in its normal ionized state, is shown as O 2− .
- Halogens (Group 7) form 1− anions. Fluorine's anion would therefore be designated as Fl − .
The metals always form positive ions, or cations; indeed, one of the defining characteristics of a metal is that it tends to lose electrons. However, the many elements of the transition metals family form cations with a variety of different charges; for this reason, there is no easy way to classify the ways in which these elements form cations.
Likewise, it should be evident from the above table that nonmetals, such as oxygen or fluorine, gain electrons to form anions. This, too, is a defining characteristic of this broad grouping of elements. The reasons why these elements—both metals and nonmetals—behave as they do are complex, involving the numbers of valence electrons (the electrons involved in chemical bonding) for each group on the periodic table, as well as the octet rule of chemical bonding, whereby elements typically bond so that each atom has eight valence electrons.