The negatively charged ion thatresults when an atom gains one or more electrons. An anion (pronounced "AN-ie-un") of a single element is named by adding the suffix -ide to the name of the original element—hence, "chloride." Other rules apply for more complex anions.
The positively charged ion thatresults when an atom loses one or more electrons. A cation (pronounced KAT-ieun) is named after the element of which it is an ion and, thus, is called, for instance, the aluminum ion or the aluminum cation.
A type of solid in which the constituent parts have a simple and definite geometric arrangement that is repeated in all directions. Types of crystalline solids include atomic solids, ionic solids, and molecular solids.
Negatively charged particles in an atom. The number of electrons and protons in an atom is the same, thus canceling out one another. When an atom loses or gains one or more electrons, however—thus becoming an ion—it acquires a net electric charge.
A term describing thecharacteristics of an atom that has acquired excess energy.
A term describing the characteristics of an atom that is at its ordinary energy level.
An atom or group of atoms that has lost or gained one or more electrons, and thus has a net electric charge. There are two types of ions: anions and cations.
The process of replacing one ion with another of similar charge.
A form of chemical bonding that results from attractions between ions with opposite electric charges.
A compound (two or more elements chemically bonded to one another), in which ions are present. Ionic compounds contain at least one metal and nonmetal, joined by an ionic bond.
A form of crystalline solid that contains ions. When mixed with a solvent such as water, ions from table salt—an example of an ionic solid—move freely throughout the solution, making it possible to conduct an electric current.
A term that refers to two different processes. In one kind of ionization, one or more electrons are removed from an atom or molecule to create an ion. A second kind of ionization occurs whenan ionic solid, such as salt dissociates into its component ions upon being dissolved in a solution.
The amount of energy required to achieve ionization in which one or more electrons are removed from an atom or molecule. Another term for this is ionization potential.
The center of an atom, a region where protons and neutrons are located, and around which electrons spin.
A pattern of probabilities regarding the position of an electron for anatom in a particular energy state.
An anion containing oxygen.
An anion involving more than one element.
A positively charged particle in an atom.