Different versions of the same element, distinguished by molecular structure.
Having no definite structure.
Naturally occurring compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. These are primarily produced by green plants through the process of photosynthesis.
The process whereby nutrients from plants are broken down in an animal's body to create carbon dioxide.
A type of chemical bonding in which two atoms share valence electrons.
A term describing a type of solid in which the constituent parts have a simple and definite geometric arrangement that is repeated in all directions.
A form of bonding in which two atoms share two pairs of valence electrons. Carbon is also capable of single bonds and triple bonds.
The relative ability of an atom to attract valence electrons.
An atom or group of atoms that has lost or gained one or more electrons, and thus has a net electric charge.
A form of chemical bonding that results from attractions between ions with opposite electric charges.
Substances which have the same chemical formula, but which are different chemically due to differences in the arrangement of atoms.
Atoms that have an equal number of protons, and hence are of the same element, but differ in their number of neutrons. This results in a difference ofmass. Isotopes may be either stable or unstable. The latter type, known as radioisotopes, are radioactive.
A term describing the distribution of valence electrons that takes place in chemical bonding for most elements, which usually end up with eight valence electrons.
The study of carbon, its compounds, and their properties. (Many carbon-containing oxides and carbonates are not considered organic, however.)
The biological conversion of light energy (that is, electromagnetic energy) to chemical energy inp lants.
A term describing a phenomenon whereby certain isotopes known as radioisotopes are subject to a form of decay brought about by the emission of high-energy particles. "Decay" does not mean that the isotope "rots"; rather, it decays to form another isotope until eventually (though this may take a long time) it becomes stable.
A form of bonding in which two atoms share one pair of valence electrons. Carbon is also capable of double bonds and triple bonds.
Capable of bonding to four other elements.
A form of bonding in which two atoms share three pairs of valence electrons. Carbon is also capable of single bonds and double bonds.
Electrons that occupy the highest principal energy level in an atom. These are the electrons involved in chemical bonding.