Organic Chemistry - Key terms



ALKANES:

Hydrocarbons that form single bonds. Alkanes are also called saturated hydrocarbons.

ALKENES:

Hydrocarbons that form double bonds.

ALKYL:

A general term for an alkane that functions as a substituent.

ALKYNES:

Hydrocarbons that form triple bonds.

ALLOTROPES:

Different versions of the same element, distinguished by molecular structure.

AMORPHOUS:

Having no definite structure.

COVALENT BONDING:

A type of chemical bonding in which two atoms share valence electrons.

CRYSTALLINE:

A term describing a type of solid in which the constituent parts have a simple and definite geometric arrangement repeated in all directions.

DOUBLE BOND:

A form of bonding in which two atoms share two pairs of valence electrons. Carbon is also capable of single bonds and triple bonds.

ELECTRONEGATIVITY:

The relative ability of an atom to attract valence electrons.

FUNCTIONAL GROUPS:

An atom or group of atoms whose presence identifies a specific family of compounds.

HYDROCARBON:

Any chemical compound whose molecules are made up of nothing but carbon and hydrogen atoms.

HYDROCARBON DERIVATIVES:

Families of compounds formed by the joining of hydrocarbons with various functionalgroups.

ISOMERS:

Substances having the same chemical formula, but that are different chemically due to disparities in the arrangement of atoms.

OCTET RULE:

A term describing the distribution of valence electrons that takes place in chemical bonding for most elements, which end up with eight valence electrons.

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY:

The study of carbon, its compounds, and their properties. (Some carbon-containing compounds, most notably oxides and carbonates, are not considered organic.)

SATURATED:

A term describing a hydrocarbon in which each carbon is already bound to four other atoms. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons.

SINGLE BOND:

A form of bonding in which two atoms share one pair of valence electrons. Carbon is also capable of double bonds and triple bonds.

SUBSTITUENTS:

Branches of alkanes, named by taking the name of an alkane and replacing the suffix with yl—for example, methyl, ethyl, and so on.

TETRAVALENT:

Capable of bonding to four other elements.

TRIPLE BOND:

A form of bonding in which two atoms share three pairs of valence electrons. Carbon is also capable of single bonds and double bonds.

UNSATURATED:

A term describing a hydrocarbon in which the carbons involved in a multiple bond (a double bond or triple bond) are free to bond with other atoms. Alkenes and alkynes are bothunsaturated.

VALENCE ELECTRONS:

Electrons that occupy the highest principal energy level in an atom. These are the electrons involved in chemical bonding.

Also read article about Organic Chemistry from Wikipedia

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