Organic Chemistry - Key terms
Hydrocarbons that form single bonds. Alkanes are also called saturated hydrocarbons.
Hydrocarbons that form double bonds.
A general term for an alkane that functions as a substituent.
Hydrocarbons that form triple bonds.
Different versions of the same element, distinguished by molecular structure.
Having no definite structure.
A type of chemical bonding in which two atoms share valence electrons.
A term describing a type of solid in which the constituent parts have a simple and definite geometric arrangement repeated in all directions.
A form of bonding in which two atoms share two pairs of valence electrons. Carbon is also capable of single bonds and triple bonds.
The relative ability of an atom to attract valence electrons.
An atom or group of atoms whose presence identifies a specific family of compounds.
Any chemical compound whose molecules are made up of nothing but carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Families of compounds formed by the joining of hydrocarbons with various functionalgroups.
Substances having the same chemical formula, but that are different chemically due to disparities in the arrangement of atoms.
A term describing the distribution of valence electrons that takes place in chemical bonding for most elements, which end up with eight valence electrons.
The study of carbon, its compounds, and their properties. (Some carbon-containing compounds, most notably oxides and carbonates, are not considered organic.)
A term describing a hydrocarbon in which each carbon is already bound to four other atoms. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons.
A form of bonding in which two atoms share one pair of valence electrons. Carbon is also capable of double bonds and triple bonds.
Branches of alkanes, named by taking the name of an alkane and replacing the suffix with yl—for example, methyl, ethyl, and so on.
Capable of bonding to four other elements.
A form of bonding in which two atoms share three pairs of valence electrons. Carbon is also capable of single bonds and double bonds.
A term describing a hydrocarbon in which the carbons involved in a multiple bond (a double bond or triple bond) are free to bond with other atoms. Alkenes and alkynes are bothunsaturated.
Electrons that occupy the highest principal energy level in an atom. These are the electrons involved in chemical bonding.