Works Consulted

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Isaac Asimov, Mars: The Red Planet. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1977. Written by an author long revered for his scientific writings, this is a study of Mars from the earliest discoveries through the Viking mission in 1976.

Joseph M. Boyce, The Smithsonian Book of Mars. Washington, DC, and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002. A well-researched, detailed book that discusses Mars's climate, atmosphere, surface, and interior, as well as giving in-depth descriptions of space missions. Highly recommended.

Robert Godwin, ed., Mars: The NASA Mission Reports. Burlington, ON: Apogee, 2000. An excellent resource that includes actual Mars mission reports, details of spacecraft, and other information released by NASA.

Paul Raeburn, Uncovering the Secrets of the Red Planet. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1998. An interesting, enlightening, and easy-to-read book written by an award-winning science journalist. Highly recommended.

Carl Sagan, Cosmos. New York: Wings, 1995. A book based on the late scientist's well-known television series of the same name, told in a way that makes space exploration come to life for the reader.

William Sheehan, The Planet Mars: A History of Observation and Discovery. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1996. Traces the human fascination with Mars starting with ancient peoples who observed it with the naked eye up through exploration in the 1990s.

William Sheehan and Stephen James O'Meara, Mars: The Lure of the Red Planet. Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 2001. Provides information and details about everything from ancient astronomers and their fascination with Mars to current space missions.

Robert Zubrin, The Case for Mars: The Plan to Settle the Red Planet and Why We Must. New York: Free Press, 1996. A book by a leading space exploration authority who has developed a very detailed "blueprint" for sending humans to Mars.


David S.F. Portree, "The New Martian Chronicles," Astronomy , August 1997.

Wernher von Braun, "The Next 20 Years of Interplanetary Exploration," Astronautics & Aeronautics , November 1965.

Internet Sources

Jonathan Amos, "Ankle-Deep on Mars," BBC News , February 16, 2003. . An interesting article about the ice that was discovered by the Mars Odyssey rover in 2003.

Charlene Anderson, "The First Rover on Mars: The Soviets Did It in 1971," Planetary Report , July/August 1990. . An article about the secretive Mars rover/lander mission of the Soviet Union in 1971.

Bill Arnett, "Mars," , March 19, 2004. www.nine . An informative online article about the red planet that includes links to many different Mars-related sites, including a vast collection of images.

Sallie Baliunas, "Close Encounter," Tech Central Station , August 15, 2003. . Discusses how "Mars Fever" swept through the world during the days of Percival Lowell.

Marshall Brain, "How the Mars Exploration Rovers Work," How Stuff Works. . A wonderful, in-depth article about the Spirit and Opportunity rovers and their Mars mission.

Robert Roy Britt, "Sand Dunes on Mars Reach Dizzying Heights," , November 10, 2003. . A fascinating article about Martian sand dunes.

Adam P. Bruckner, "How Humans Can Get to Mars," 1998. An article about the challenges of sending humans to the red planet.

George W. Bush, "President Bush Announces New Vision for Space Exploration Program," White House press release, January 14, 2004. .

Ricaurte Chock, " Pathfinder Mission and Mars Landing," NASA Glenn Research Center, Photovoltaic and Space Experiments Branch, August 7, 2002. .

Greg Clark, "Will Nuclear Power Put Humans on Mars?" , May 21, 2000. . An article about how nuclear technology could be the answer for lower-cost missions to Mars.

David J. Craig, "The Air Up There: BU Planetary Scientist Tracks Spirit 's Trip to Mars," BU Bridge , January 16, 2004. . A planetary scientist involved in the Mars Exploration Rover mission describes the Martian atmosphere.

Anthony R. Curtis, "Exploring Mars!" Space Today . . A comprehensive and well-written collection of information about Mars the planet and Mars exploration.

Leonard David, "Mars Rovers in Autumn: A Life-and-Death Drama on the Red Planet," Space Flight , May 6, 2004. 506.html . A look at the Spirit and Opportunity rovers.

European Space Agency, "Mars vs Earth," Science & Technology , July 7, 2003. . Interesting information about the contrast between Mars and Earth.

——, "Martian Interior: Volcanism," Science & Technology , June 2, 2004. . An examination of the geological processes that shaped Mars.

Calvin J. Hamilton, "History of Space Exploration." . An excellent resource that answers virtually any question about Mars from the past to the present.

Stephen J. Hoffman and David L. Kaplan, "Human Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team," NASA, July 1997. A comprehensive report explaining what it would take to send human explorers to Mars.

Paul Karol and David Catling, Planet Mars Chronology , 1996. A good timeline of Mars exploration.

John F. Kennedy, "Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs," May 25, 1961, John F. Kennedy Library and Museum. The complete text of President Kennedy's speech in which he stressed the need for space exploration.

Karen Miller, "Mars Mice," Science@NASA, January 20, 2004. . Discusses NASA's plan to send mice astronauts to Mars in 2006.

Karen Miller and Tony Phillips, "Harvesting Mars," Science @NASA, August 26, 2003. An intriguing account of how astronauts visiting Mars will have to live off the land.

NASA, "From Robot Geologists to Human Geologists on Mars," Mars Exploration Rover Mission , January 13, 2004.

——, "Mars Exploration Rover Mission," March 19, 2004. . Excellent, comprehensive collection of articles about the MER mission that describe the launch vehicle, landers, and rovers, as well as a step-by-step explanation of the spacecraft's landing on Mars.

Franklin O'Donnell, JPL 101 , California Institute of Technology, 2002. . A thorough, interesting history of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Tony Phillips, "Can People Go to Mars?" Science@NASA, February 17, 2004. . Takes a close look at the radiation risks on Mars for human explorers.

——, "Planet Gobbling Dust Storms," Science@NASA, July 16, 2001.

Planetary Society, "The History of Missions to Mars." . A detailed chronology of Mars exploration.

Annie Platoff, Eyes on the Red Planet: Human Mars Mission Planning, 1952–1970 , NASA Technical Publications, July 2001. . A well-written and interesting account of the many years of planning for a human voyage to Mars.

Emily Sohn, "Destination Mars," Science News for Kids , March 17, 2004. . An article about human expeditions to Mars, including some details about NASA's plans to send mice to the red planet before it sends people.

Space Telescope Science Institute, "Mars' Chaotic Climate," HubbleSite NewsCenter , May 20, 1997. .

Describes the radical changes in the Martian climate and weather patterns.

David P. Stern, From Stargazers to Starships , 2001. . A complete online book written by a scientist with a wealth of knowledge about anything related to space exploration.

Kevin Zahnle, "Decline and Fall of the Martian Empire," Nature , July 12, 2001. Mars.pdf.

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