TEMPERATURE AND HEAT
Temperature, heat, and related concepts belong to the world of physics rather than chemistry; yet it would be impossible for the chemist to work without an understanding of these properties. Thermometers, of course, measure temperature according to one or both of two well-known scales based on the freezing and boiling points of water, though scientists prefer a scale based on the virtual freezing point of all matter. Also related to temperature are specific heat capacity, or the amount of energy required to change the temperature of a substance, and also calorimetry, the measurement of changes in heat as a result of physical or chemical changes. Although these concepts do not originate from chemistry but from physics, they are no less useful to the chemist.