Along the bottom of the periodic table of elements, separated from the main body of the chart, are two rows, the first of which represents the lanthanides. Composed of lanthanum and the 14 elements of the lanthanide series, the lanthanides were once called the "rare earth" metals. In fact, they are not particularly rare: many of them appear in as much abundance as more familiar elements such as mercury. They are, however, difficult to extract, a characteristic that defines them as much as their silvery color; sometimes high levels of reactivity; and sensitivity to contamination. Though some lanthanides have limited uses, members of this group are found in everything from cigarette lighters to TV screens, and from colored glass to control rods in nuclear reactors.

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tohid heydarpoor
I am a msc student in tehran polytecnik university in Iran. I need papers about lantanide ionxchange.please guide me.
tank you.

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